The company that I work for had a stampede breakfast and mini rodeo on Saturday at the Calgary Stampede and I went along with my wife and two kids. We met some people there and although we brought our own lunch we did have the sausage, pancakes and hash browns for breakfast.
The lunch was packed by my wife and was healthy fruit and sandwiches which were great for all of us and helped us avoid the crazy prices for food on the fairgrounds.
But this story is not about the food or the food on the grounds.
I always get excited about hanging out and playing with the kids. I am a pretty active guy when it comes to looking after the kids running behind and trying to keep up with them and that was the case on Saturday, but I did not bring any water to drink and really did not think about drinking anything.
Just like anyone on a really hot day I was fine until it was a bit too late. Just before we left in mid afternoon I started feeling a little light headed and went a little downhill from there. We got in the car and went to the first 7-11 we could find to get a drink for me.
After sucking back some liquids I was fine but I would bet that there were others that day that did not fare as well as me.
It is really important to drink a lot of liquids when you are active and at these times most people realize it and do get in the liquids and electrolytes that they need to keep them in peak condition.
But, when you are just running around and away from home on a hot day quite often you don’t really think about the water just as I did on Saturday. If you were to go to the first aid tent at any event during the summer you should see that the majority of people are suffering from heat exhaustion or dehydration not from being active but just from drying up in the heat.
The easiest way to avoid these problems is to make sure that you drink a lot of liquids throughout the day.
Mix it up drink fruit juice for the sugar, water for the pure hydration and try to keep yourself in the shade whenever possible.
This time in July and August is prime time for these problems. Especially when it is really hot take care of your kids as they are not nearly as good at regulating their temperature and can get heat stroke which is an even worse problem and can require hospitalization.
What happens to the body as a result of exposure to extreme heat?
People suffer heat-related illness when the body’s temperature control system is overloaded. The body normally cools itself by sweating. But under some conditions, sweating just isn’t enough. In such cases, a person’s body temperature rises rapidly.
Very high body temperatures may damage the brain or other vital organs.
Several factors affect the body’s ability to cool itself during extremely hot weather. When the humidity is high, sweat will not evaporate as quickly, preventing the body from releasing heat quickly.
Other conditions that can limit the ability to regulate temperature include old age, youth (age 0-4), obesity, fever, dehydration, heart disease, mental illness, poor circulation, sunburn, and prescription drug use and alcohol use.
Who is at greatest risk for heat-related illness?
Those at greatest risk for heat-related illness include infants and children up to four years of age, people 65 years of age and older, people who are over, and people who are ill or on certain medications.
What is heat stroke?
Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related illness. It occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature: the body’s temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism fails, and the body is unable to cool down. Body temperature may rise to 106°F or higher within 10 to 15 minutes.
Heat stroke can cause death or permanent disability if emergency treatment is not provided.
What are the warning signs of a heat stroke?
- Warning signs of heat stroke vary but may include the following:
- An extremely high body temperature (above 103°F)
- Red, hot, and dry skin (no sweating)
- Rapid, strong pulse
- Throbbing headache
What should I do if I see someone with any of the warning signs of heat stroke?
If you see any of these signs, you may be dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Have someone call for immediate medical assistance while you begin cooling the victim. Do the following:
- Get the victim to a shady area.
- Cool the victim rapidly, using whatever methods you can. For example, immerse the victim in a tub of cool water; place the person in a cool shower; spray the victim with cool water from a garden hose; sponge the person with cool water; or if the humidity is low, wrap the victim in a cool, wet sheet and fan him or her vigorously.
- Monitor body temperature and continue cooling efforts until the body temperature drops to 101-102°F.
- If emergency medical personnel are delayed, call the hospital emergency room for further instructions.
- Do not give the victim alcohol to drink.
- Get medical assistance as soon as possible.
What is heat exhaustion?
Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement of fluids. Those most prone to heat exhaustion are elderly people, those with high blood pressure, and those working or exercising in a hot environment.
What are the warning signs of heat exhaustion?
The warning signs of heat exhaustion include the following:
- Heavy sweating
- Muscle cramps
- Nausea or vomiting
- The skin may be cool and moist. The pulse rate will be fast and weak, and breathing will be fast and shallow. If heat exhaustion is untreated, it may progress to heat stroke. See medical attention if symptoms worsen or last longer than one hour.
What steps can be taken to cool the body during heat exhaustion?
- Drink cool, nonalcoholic beverages.
- Take a cool shower, bath, or sponge bath.
- Seek an air-conditioned environment.
- Wear light clothing.
- What are heat cramps and who is affected?
Heat cramps are muscle pains or spasms – usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs – that may occur in association with strenuous activity. People who sweat a lot during strenuous activity are prone to heat cramps.
This sweating depletes the body’s salt and moisture.
The low salt level in the muscles causes painful cramps. Heat cramps may also be a symptom of heat exhaustion. If you have heart problems or are on a low-sodium diet, seek medical attention for heat cramps.
What should I do if I have heat cramps?
- If medical attention is not necessary, take the following steps:
- Stop all activity and sit quietly in a cool place.
- Drink clear juice or a sports beverage.
- Do not return to strenuous activity for a few hours after the cramps subside because further exertion may lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
- Seek medical attention for heat cramps if they do not subside in 1 hour.
- What is heat rash?
Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather. It can occur at any age but is most common in young children. Heat rash looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters. It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases.
What is the best treatment for heat rash?
The best treatment for heat rash is to provide a cooler, less humid environment. Keep the affected area dry. Dusting powder may be used to increase comfort, but avoid using ointments or creams — they keep the skin warm and moist and may make the condition worse.
Can medications increase the risk of heat-related illness?
The risk for heat-related illness and death may increase among people using the following drugs:
Psychotropics, which affect psychic function, behavior, or experience (e.g. haloperidol or chlorpromazine);
Medications for Parkinson’s disease, because they can inhibit perspiration; and
Tranquilizers such as phenothiazines, butyrophenones, and thiozanthenes.
How effective are electric fans in preventing heat-related illness?
Electric fans may provide comfort, but when the temperature is in the high 90s, fans will not prevent heat-related illness. Taking a cool shower or bath or moving to an air-conditioned place is a much better way to cool off. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related illness. Exposure to air conditioning for even a few hours a day will reduce the risk for heat-related illness. Consider visiting a shopping mall or public library for a few hours.
How can people protect their health when temperatures are extremely high?
Remember to keep cool and use common sense. Drink plenty of fluid, replace salts and minerals, wear appropriate clothing and sunscreen, pace yourself, stay cool indoors, schedule outdoor activities carefully, use a buddy system, monitor those at risk, and adjust to the environment.
How much should I drink during hot weather?
During hot weather you will need to drink more liquid than your thirst indicates. Increase your fluid intake, regardless of your activity level. During heavy exercise in a hot environment, drink two to four glasses (16-32 ounces) of cool fluids each hour.
Avoid drinks containing alcohol because they will actually cause you to lose more fluid.
Should I take salt tablets during hot weather?
Do not take salt tablets unless directed by your doctor. Heavy sweating removes salt and minerals from the body. These are necessary for your body and must be replaced.
The easiest and safest way to do this is through your diet. Drink fruit juice or a sports beverage when you exercise or work in the heat.
What is the best clothing for hot weather or a heat wave?
Wear as little clothing as possible when you are at home. Choose light, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing. In the hot sun, a wide-brimmed hat will provide shade and keep the head cool.
If you must go outdoors, be sure to apply sunscreen 30 minutes prior to going out and continue to reapply according to the package directions.
Sunburn affects your body’s ability to cool itself and causes a loss of body fluids. It also causes pain and damages the skin.
What should I do if I work in a hot environment?
Pace yourself. If you are not accustomed to working or exercising in a hot environment, start slowly and pick up the pace gradually.
If exertion in the heat makes your heart pound and leaves you gasping for breath, STOP all activity. Get into a cool area or at least in the shade, and rest, especially if you become lightheaded, confused, weak, or faint.